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Government Of Assam Dibrugarh District

NVBDCP (National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme)

The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) is an umbrella programme for prevention and control of malaria and other vector borne diseases viz., Lymphatic Filariasis, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis, Chikungunya and Dengue with special focus on the vulnerable groups of the society namely, children, women, scheduled castes (SC) and scheduled tribes (ST). Under the programme, it is ensured that the disadvantaged and marginalised sections benefit from the delivery of services so that the desired National Health Policy and Rural Health Mission goals are achieved.

The Directorate of NVBDCP under the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, is the nodal agency responsible for planning, coordination, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of NVBDCP programme at all levels.

In its endeavour to provide a central resource centre for all the IEC and BCC materials concerning the above mentioned six vector borne diseases, the Directorate of NVBDCP envisaged the creation of this web-based repository. The repository contains IEC and BCC materials developed under NVBDCP programme at national and state levels.

The Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare already has a website www.nvbdcp.gov.in. The repository has been built to ensure that all IEC and BCC materials related to the vector borne diseases i.e. Malaria, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis and Chikungunya, can be found and downloaded easily. The repository enables the users to sort and identify materials across various dimensions like national-state, type, language, target audience and area (Rural/Urban/Tribal). The materials are provided in their original language (regional versions are also available for some materials) and format; you may download and translate only the content into other languages based on your requirement, giving due credit to the original source.

MALARIA

What is malaria?

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a plasmodium parasite and spread by the Anopheles mosquito. In 2015, there were 214 million cases of and 438,000 deaths due to malaria.

What are the symptoms of malaria?

It is a flu-like illness, which begins with a high fever and chills. Other symptoms include vomiting and nausea, headaches, body pain, weakness, and fatigue.

What is the treatment for malaria? Are there any vaccines available?

The treatment for malaria involves the use of prescribed antimalarial medication, mainly Artemisinin Combined Therapy (ACT). The dosage and type of medication will depend on a variety of factors, including age, type of malaria, and in cases of pregnant women. Please consult a doctor if one experiences malaria-like symptoms.

There is no commercially available vaccine against malaria today. While several vaccine candidates are currently under research and development worldwide, one should continue to take adequate precautions to prevent mosquito bites and malaria.

How can one find out if they have malaria/ What are the tests available to diagnose malaria?

Malaria can be promptly diagnosed by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy (laboratory blood test). This involves examining a drop of the patient’s blood to determine presence of the malaria parasite. RDTs are often used in the field by ASHA workers and primary health centers for efficient management of malaria cases, especially in hard-to-reach areas where access to adequate health services is limited.  A nucleic acid amplification-based test is also available to detect malaria in areas where malaria is not very common.

How can malaria be prevented?

Malaria is spread by the Anopheles mosquito. It is important to be protected from these mosquitos, both indoors and outdoors because even a single mosquito bite can lead to malaria. Before stepping out, the use of personal repellents like Good knight Fabric Roll-On (or the Good knight cool gel/patches etc.) can prevent mosquito bites. When at home, shutting the doors and windows in the evening, and use of household-level repellents like Good knight Activ+ and Good knight Fastcard card will keep mosquitos away. People should also sleep under bed nets for further protection.

Where can one get more information about malaria?

The websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India (NVBDCP) provide updated information on malaria, its symptoms, and treatment.

Please consult the local doctor, health clinic, or healthcare providers should one have high fever and chills.

Malaria: Symptoms and PreventionMalaria is a serious, and at times even life-threatening tropical disease that is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It is usually prevalent in tropical countries (sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, Latin America and Middle East) which have a warmer climate, hot enough for the parasites to thrive. Malaria in India is a common vector-borne disease.

How Malaria Spreads

Only female Anopheles mosquitoes spread the Malaria parasites and interestingly, this mosquito bites mostly in the night time (between dusk and dawn). When a mosquito bites a person already infected with Malaria, it sucks up the person’s blood which is laden with the disease-causing parasites. When the same mosquito bites another person, it injects the parasites into that person.

 

Malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, shared use of needles/syringes that are contaminated with infected blood, and from a mother to her unborn child before or during delivery.

Malaria Fever Symptoms

Malaria symptoms usually appear between 10 to 15 days after the mosquito bites.

Malaria infection is usually characterized by recurrent attacks exhibiting the following signs and symptoms:

  • Moderate to severe shaking, chills (rigours)
  • High grade fever (which comes and goes)
  • Profuse sweating

In some types, malaria fever occurs in 48-hour cycles. During these cycles, the person feels cold at first and experiences profound shivering and develops fever, which is accompanied by severe sweating and fatigue. These symptoms usually last for 6 to 12 hours.

Generally, the patient presents with a combination of the following symptoms depending upon the severity of infection and type of parasite infested –

  • Headache
  • Diarrhoea
  • Vomiting & nausea
  • Extreme tiredness (fatigue)
  • Severe body aches
  • Yellowish tinge of skin (jaundice), if the liver gets involved
  • Anaemia
  • Bloody stools
  • Kidney failure
  • Seizure
  • Confusion
  • Coma, in extreme cases

If not treated, Malaria may become life-threatening by disrupting the blood supply to vital organs.

How to Prevent Malaria

Malaria can be avoided by using the ABCD approach to prevention –

 

  • Awareness of risk – Look around to check if you are at risk of getting Malaria.
  • Bite prevention – Avoid mosquito bites by using indoor and outdoor insect repellents, wearing covered clothes and using a mosquito net. Try Goodknight Activ+ at home to keep pesky mosquitoes away. When you step outside, make sure to apply just 4 dots of the Goodknight Fabric Roll-On on your clothes to stay protected from mosquitoes for up to 8 hours.
  • Check for breeding areas – Clear any standing water in your vicinity and don’t let water get stagnated in tyres, pots and outdoor air coolers.
  • Diagnosis – Seek immediate medical help if Malaria symptoms are noticed.

With the correct diagnosis and management, Malaria is a highly preventable and treatable disease. Besides supportive care, appropriate antibiotics are given for Malaria treatment.

 

JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS

1. What is Japanese encephalitis?

Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus and spread primarily by the Culex mosquito. Humans are considered accidental hosts of the virus, that is, the virus primarily infects animals, namely pigs and water birds (herons, egrets). The virus does not live in humans for very long and is usually present in very small quantities so a feeding mosquito can’t pick up the virus from an infected person and spread it to another person. This disease is limited to rural areas of Asia and the Western Pacific.

2. What are the symptoms of Japanese encephalitis?
Most cases of Japanese encephalitis do not show any symptoms. In others (less than 1%), the infection will cause neurological problems like headaches or meningitis (inflammation of the brain tissue). Other symptoms include fever, seizures, neck stiffness, disorientation, tremors, paralysis, and lack of coordination. In severe cases or if left untreated, Japanese Encephalitis can cause permanent nervous system damage and/or death.

3. What is the treatment for Japanese encephalitis? Are there any vaccines available?
There is no specific treatment available for Japanese encephalitis; appropriate management of symptoms is crucial. This involves use of pain relievers, medication to reduce fever, and plenty of fluids. Usually, patients showing neurological symptoms will be admitted to hospital for observation and supportive care.

There is a commercially available vaccine against Japanese encephalitis. It is approved for use in people over the age of 2 months. It is recommended for people who plan to spend more than 30 days in endemic areas or those who will spend long periods of time in rural areas and outdoors, where Japanese encephalitis is common. The vaccine consists of 2 doses, which must be given 28 days apart. The second dose should not be given later than a week before traveling to these areas. Please consult a doctor should there be any questions regarding vaccination for Japanese encephalitis. Pregnant women should usually not get the vaccine, but must consult a doctor to make sure.

4. How can one find out if they have Japanese encephalitis / What are the tests available to diagnose Japanese encephalitis?
Japanese encephalitis can be diagnosed by examining the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to detect the virus in patients complaining of neurological problems and living in endemic countries of Asia and the Western Pacific region.

5. How can Japanese encephalitis be prevented?
Japanese encephalitis is spread primarily by the Culex mosquito. It is important to be protected from these mosquitos, both indoors and outdoors. Before stepping out, the use of personal repellents like Good knight Fabric Roll-On (or the Good knight cool gel/patches etc.) can prevent mosquito bites. When at home, shutting the doors and windows in the evening, and use of household-level repellents like Good knight Activ+ and Good knight Fast Card will keep mosquitos away through the night. People should also sleep under bed nets for further protection.

6. How does the Japanese encephalitis -causing mosquito (Culex and Mansonia) behave?

Japanese encephalitis is spread by the Culex mosquito found in rural and peri-urban areas. The Culex mosquitos prefer biting during the night. They prefer breeding in polluted water, ditches, paddy fields, or in water with lots of vegetation. These species typically bite cattle, pigs, and birds, and may accidently bite humans if they are in the same environment or in close proximity to these animals – e.g. Farmers, or people living in rural areas where agricultural activities are common.

7. Where can one get more information about Japanese encephalitis?

The websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India (NVBDCP) provide updated information on Japanese encephalitis, its symptoms, and treatment.

Please consult the local doctor, health clinic, or healthcare providers should one experience neurological problems, including headaches, seizures, disorientation, and neck stiffness, along with a fever.

Japanese Encephalitis – Know The Symptoms And Its Prevention 

Wondering what is Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)? Look no further, we tell you all about this disease, its symptoms and the ways to prevent it.

Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain and most common viral infection. Japanese Encephalitis is a type of brain inflammation caused by the Japanese Encephalitis virus which is carried by mosquitoes.

The first case of this kind of encephalitis was documented in Japan (1871) and hence, the name Japanese Encephalitis.

It is an endemic disease, which possess a risk for everyone but cases on kids below 15 years old are more frequent.  This virus mainly survives in pigs, ardeid birds and in mosquitoes.

With over 1200 cases documented over the last year, India is declared as country with known risk of Japanese Encephalitis. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the disease, its symptoms and prevention as it will help you protect your family from the disease.

We list out the symptoms, which will help you recognize Japanese Encephalitis symptoms and would help you to differentiate from the other similar conditions.

Symptoms of Japanese Encephalitis

  • It can begin with mild fever, headache, vomiting, fits and can have rapid progession to disorientation and even coma over a span of hours or days.
  • Mental status changes, neurologic symptoms, weakness, and movement disorders might develop over the next few days.
  • Muscle stiffness is one symptom which you need to check on. Sudden or shooting pain is observed during the movement of the muscle, do not pass it off as causal muscular spasm.
  • For persons who develop symptoms, the incubation period (time from infection until illness) is typically 5-15 days.
  • In an area where encephalitis is known to occur, it is important to seek medical advice at the onset of any of these symptoms.
  • Seizures are common, especially among children.

 

At some stage, it  would be confusing to understand or to judge the symptoms or even to set out a definite diagnosis during its initial days of disease. It is essential to have a check on the severity of symptoms and maintain a timely report of the treatment.

Recognizing the symptoms is important but it is also essential to know the ways you can prevent the disease, so let’s read and understand the ways you can prevent it.

Ways to Prevent Japanese Encephalitis (JE)

There are safe and effective JE vaccines available which can be administered to you and your children.

Some points to note before taking JE vaccine:

  • JE vaccine can be taken by anyone who is at a risk of exposure to the disease, please do consult your doctor before hand.
  • The dosage of vaccine depends on the age of your children or yourself:
    – Normally 2 doses of this vaccine is required , and it has to be administered after 28 days
    – If your child is below 3 years of age then they would require fewer dosage
    – If your child is over 17 years of age a booster dose maybe administered after a year
  • Pregnant women should usually not take this vaccine

While vaccinations offer protection from the disease for you and your family, it is always advisable that you use safe mosquito repellents like liquid vapourizers (Goodknight Activ+) when you are indoors and personal mosquito repellents to keep yourself and your family safe from mosquito bites and mosquito-borne diseases.

 

DENGUE

Definition of dengue

: an acute infectious disease caused by a flavivirus (species Dengue virus of the genus Flavivirus), transmitted by aedes mosquitoes, and characterized by headache, severe joint pain, and a rash — called also breakbone fever, dengue fever

an acute infectious disease that is characterized by headache, severe joint pain, and a rash and that is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus (species Dengue virus) transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes — called also breakbone fever, dandy fever, dengue fever

Signs and symptoms

Mosquitoes spread dengue fever.

Symptoms vary depending on the severity of the disease.

Mild dengue fever

Symptoms can appear up to 7 days after being bitten by the mosquito that carries the virus.

They include:

  • aching muscles and joints
  • body rash that can disappear and then reappear
  • high fever
  • intense headache
  • pain behind the eyes
  • vomiting and feeling nauseous

Symptoms usually disappear after a week, and mild dengue rarely involves serious or fatal complications.

Dengue hemorrhagic fever

At first, symptoms of DHF may be mild, but they gradually worsen within a few days. As well as mild dengue symptoms, there may be signs of internal bleeding.

A person with Dengue hemorrhagic fever may experience:

  • bleeding from the mouth, gums, or nose
  • clammy skin
  • damage to lymph and blood vessels
  • internal bleeding, which can lead to black vomit and feces, or stools
  • a lower number of platelets in the blood
  • sensitive stomach
  • small blood spots under the skin
  • weak pulse

Without prompt treatment, DHF can be fatal.

Dengue shock syndrome

DSS is a severe form of dengue. It can be fatal.

Apart from symptoms of mild dengue fever, the person may experience:

  • intense stomach pain
  • disorientation
  • sudden hypotension, or a fast drop in blood pressure
  • heavy bleeding
  • regular vomiting
  • blood vessels leaking fluid

Without treatment, this can result in death.

Treatment

Dengue is a virus, so there is no specific treatment or cure. However, intervention can help, depending on how severe the disease is.

For milder forms, treatment includes:

Preventing dehydration: A high fever and vomiting can dehydrate the body. The person should drink clean water, ideally bottled rather than tap water. Rehydration salts can also help replace fluids and minerals.

Painkillers, such as Tylenol or paracetamol: These can help lower fever and ease pain.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin or ibuprofen, are not advised, as they can increase the risk of internal bleeding.

More severe forms of dengue fever may need:

  • intravenous (IV) fluid supplementation, or drip, if the person cannot take fluids by mouth
  • blood transfusion, for patients with severe dehydration

Hospitalization will allow the individual to be properly monitored, in case symptoms get worse.

Causes

There are four dengue viruses (DENV) that cause dengue fever. They are all spread by a species of mosquito known as Aedes aegypti, and more rarely by the Aedes albopictus mosquito.

The viruses jumped from monkeys to humans between 100 and 800 years ago, according to the CDC, but dengue remained a minor problem until the middle of the twentieth century.

Aedes aegypti originated in Africa, but nowadays it is found in tropical areas around the world, especially in and around areas of human population.

The virus is transmitted from an infected mosquito to a human. A mosquito bites a person who is infected with the dengue virus, and the virus is passed on when the mosquito bites someone else.

It it possible to have dengue fever more than once. A second infection carries a higher risk of developing a harsher form.

High-risk areas

Dengue fever is most common in subtropical and tropical areas, such as Central and South America, parts of Africa, parts of Asia, the Caribbean, and the Pacific.

Most cases of dengue among U.S. citizens occur in Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Samoa, and Guam, where the virus is endemic.

High-risk regions are:

  • Central and South America
  • the Caribbean
  • tropical Asia, including Bangladesh, Indonesia, and parts of China
  • Northern Australia

Unlike malaria, dengue can happen in both urban areas and rural areas, but research published in 2011 suggested that it is more common in rural areas.

Diagnosis

The signs and symptoms of dengue fever are similar to some other diseases, such as typhoidfever and malaria. This can sometimes delay an accurate diagnosis.

The doctor will assess the symptoms and the person's medical and travel history, and they may order some blood tests to confirm the diagnosis.

Prevention

No vaccine can protect against dengue fever. Only avoiding mosquito bites can prevent it.

Anyone who lives in or travels to an at-risk area can use a number of ways to avoid being bitten.

If you are spending time in a tropical region, use mosquito nets that are treated with insecticide.

Clothing: Reduce the amount of skin exposed by wearing long pants, long-sleeved shirts, and socks, tucking pant legs into shoes or socks, and wearing a hat.

Mosquito repellents: Use a repellent with at least 10 percent concentration of diethyltoluamide (DEET), or a higher concentration for longer lengths of exposure. Avoid using DEET on young children.

Mosquito traps and nets: Nets treated with insecticide are more effective, otherwise the mosquito can bite through the net if the person is standing next to it. The insecticide will kill mosquitoes and other insects, and it will repel insects from entering the room.

Door and window screens: Structural barriers, such as screens or netting, can keep mosquitos out.

Avoid scents: Heavily scented soaps and perfumes may attract mosquitos.

Camping gear: Treat clothes, shoes, and camping gear with permethrin, or purchase clothes that have been pretreated.

Timing: Try to avoid being outside at dawn, dusk, and early evening.

Stagnant water: The Aedes mosquito breeds in clean, stagnant water. Checking for and removing stagnant water can help reduce the risk.

To reduce the risk of mosquitoes breeding in stagnant water:

  • turn buckets and watering cans over and store them under shelter so that water cannot accumulate
  • remove excess water from plant pot plates
  • scrub containers to remove mosquito eggs
  • loosen soil from potted plants, to prevent puddles forming on the surface
  • make sure scupper drains are not blocked and do not place potted plants and other objects over them
  • use non-perforated gully traps, install anti-mosquito valves, and cover any traps that are rarely used
  • do not place receptacles under an air-conditioning unit
  • change the water in flower vases every second day and scrub and rinse the inside of the vase
  • prevent leaves from blocking anything that may result in the accumulation of puddles or stagnant water

When camping or picnicking, choose an area that is away from still water.

REPORT ON NATIONAL VECTOR BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME                                             
                                                                       
M4  PHC WISE REPORTS                                              
                                                                       
District:- DIBRUGARH             Month:- June   Year : 2018                        
                                                                   
Sl. No. PHC Name No. of PHC Population Total fever cases recorded during the month in M1 RDT Blood Slides Total tested (RDT + Ve & slides) Total 1 PV Total P.f. (RDT + Slide) Total Malaria Cases Passive +Ve Distribution of Total Malaria Cases Pf cases treated with ACT Severe cases treated with inj. Arteether Outbreak reported (Y/N) Stock out of anti-malarials /RDTs of more than 1 week in last fortnight No. of Malaria cases referred No. of deaths (RDT or Slide Positive) Name/Age/ Sex of death cases
No. of Slides taken Slides Examine No. of slides reported within 24 hrs of slide PV P.f. 0-4 yrs 5-14 yrs 15+ yrs SC ST Pregnant Women
No. of RDT performed No of RDT Positive (PF) No. of RDT positive (PV) Total Passive M F M F M F M F RDT present (Y/N) ACT present (Y/N)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7a 7b 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
1 Khowang 1 185888 1458 0 0 0 1458 1458 811 0 0 0 1458 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 Barbaruah 1 319455 1249 13 0 0 1249 1249 96 23 0 0 1249 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 Lahowal 1 169276 922 27 0 0 922 922 125 10 0 0 922 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 Panitola 1 130952 395 0 0 0 395 395 87 34 0 0 395 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 Tengakhat 1 210496 407 0 0 0 407 407 92 0 0 0 407 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 Naharani 1 369968 1180 0 0 0 1180 1180 338 286 1 0 1180 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Total 6 1386035 5611 40 0 0 5611 5611 1549 353 1 0 5611 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0